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Bootstrap is a free and open-source CSS framework directed at responsive, mobile-first front-end web development. It contains CSS- and (optionally) JavaScript-based design templates for typography, forms, buttons, navigation, and other interface components.

Bootstrap is the seventh-most-starred project on GitHub, with more than 142,000 stars, behind freeCodeCamp (almost 312,000 stars) and marginally behind Vue.js framework.[2] According to Alexa Rank, Bootstrap is in the top-2000 in the USA while is in the top-7000 in the USA.

Mark Otto announced Bootstrap 4 on October 29, 2014.[9] The first alpha version of Bootstrap 4 was released on August 19, 2015.[10] The first beta version was released on 10 August 2017.[11] Mark suspended work on Bootstrap 3 on September 6, 2016, to free up time to work on Bootstrap 4. Bootstrap 4 was finalized on January 18, 2018.[12]

Significant changes include:

Major rewrite of the code

Replacing Less with Sass

Addition of Reboot, a collection of element-specific CSS changes in a single file, based on Normalize

Dropping support for IE8, IE9,[contradictory] and iOS 6

CSS Flexible Box support

Adding navigation customization options

Adding responsive spacing and sizing utilities

Switching from the pixels unit in CSS to root ems

Increasing global font size from 14px to 16px

Dropping the panel, thumbnail, pager, and well components

Dropping the Glyphicons icon font

Huge number[quantify] of utility classes

Improved form styling, buttons, drop-down menus, media objects and image classes

Bootstrap 4 supports the latest versions of the Google Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, Opera, and Safari (except on Windows). It additionally supports back to IE9[contradictory] and the latest Firefox Extended Support Release (ESR).[13]

Bootstrap 5 Alpha

Bootstrap 5 Alpha was officially released on 16 Jun 2020,[14] although an experimental version of the package, created by Material Design for Bootstrap based on a developer version of the Alpha already surfaced the web weeks before.[15]

Version 5 Alpha is currently the latest version of the package.

Major changes include:[16][17][18][19]

Dropping jQuery in favor of vanilla JavaScript

Rewriting the grid to support columns placed outside of rows and responsive gutters

Migrating the documentation from Jekyll to Hugo

Dropping support for IE10 and IE11

Moving testing infrastructure from QUnit to Jasmine

Adding custom set of SVG icons

Adding CSS custom properties

Improved API

Enhanced grid system

Improved customizing docs

Updated forms

Changes that are coming soon:[20]

RTL support

Implementing an offcanvas menu

Changes that are being evaluated:

Sass module system

Increased usage of CSS custom properties

Embedding SVGs in HTML instead of CSS